موناڪو

فرينچ رويرا تي شهر ۽ ننڍڙي خودمختيار رياست
سلجھائپ صفحن جي لاءِ معاونت نظر ھيٺ مضمون the city-state تي آهي. ٻين استعمالن جي لاءِ موناڪو (سلجھائپ) ڏسو.

مناڪو (انگريزي: Monaco)، سرڪاري طور تي، مناڪو جي پرنسپلٽي، اطالوي علائقي لیگویریا کان ڪجهه ڪلوميٽر اولهه، مغربي يورپ ۾، ميڊيٽرينين سمنڊ تي، فرينچ رويرا تي، هڪ خودمختيار شهری رياست آهي. اهو هڪ گھریل علاقو آهي، جيڪو فرانس جي اتر، اوڀر ۽ اولهه ڏانهن گھریل آهي. پرنسپلٽي 38,682 رهاڪن جو گهر آهي، جن مان 9,486 مونيگاسڪ (Monégasque) شهري آهن؛ اهو وڏي پيماني تي دنيا ۾ سڀ کان امير ۽ مهانگو هنڌن مان هڪ طور سڃاتو وڃي ٿو. پرنسپلٽي جي سرڪاري ٻولي فرانسيسي آهي. ان کان سواء مونيگاسڪ (لیگویرین جو هڪ قسم)، انگريزي ۽ اطالوي ڪيترن ئي رهاڪن طرفان ڳالهائيندڙ ۽ وینجهي تی.

Principality of Monaco

Principauté de Monaco (فرانسيسي)
Prinçipatu de Mùnegu (Monégasque)
Flag of Monaco
{{{coat_alt}}}
جھنڊو نِسبتي نشان
شُعار: '"Deo Juvante" (Latin)
(انگريزي ٻولي: "With God's Help")
ترانو: "Hymne Monégasque"
(انگريزي ٻولي: "Hymn of Monaco")
مڪانيت  موناڪو  (green) نقشو Europe  (green & dark grey)
مڪانيت  موناڪو  (green)

نقشو Europe  (green & dark grey)

گادي جو هنڌ Monaco (city-state)
43°43′52″N 07°25′12″E / 43.73111°N 7.42000°E / 43.73111; 7.42000
سڀ کان وڏو quarter Monte Carlo
دفتري ٻوليون French[1]
Common languages
نسلي گروھ
مذهب
مقامي آبادي
  • Monégasque
  • Monacan[c]
حڪومت Unitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Albert II
Pierre Dartout
مقننه National Council
Independence
• House of Grimaldi (under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa)
8 January 1297
• from the French Empire
17 May 1814
• from occupation of the Sixth Coalition
17 June 1814
2 February 1861
5 January 1911
پکيڙ
• جملي
2.08 km2 (0.80 sq mi) (194th)
• پاڻي (%)
negligible[4]
آبادي
• 2022 اندازو
Steady 39,050[5] (190th)
• 2016 مردم شماري
37,308[6]
•  گھاٽائي
18٬774 /km2 (48٬624.4 /sq mi) (1st)
جِي ڊي پي (مساوي قوت خريد ) 2015 لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$7.672 billion (2015 est.)[7] (168th)
• في سيڪڙو
$115,700 (2015 est.)[7] (3rd)
جِي. ڊي. پي  (رڳو نالي ۾ ) 2019[b] لڳ ڀڳ
• ڪل
$7.424 billion[8] (159th)

2.02 چورس ڪلوميٽر (0.78 چورس ميل) جي ايراضيءَ سان، اها ويٽيڪن سٽي کان پوءِ، دنيا جي ٻي ننڍڙي خود مختيار رياست آهي. ان جي آبادي 19,009 في چورس ڪلوميٽر ان کي دنيا ۾ سڀ کان وڌيڪ گنجان آبادي واري خود مختيار رياست بڻائي ٿي. موناڪو جي زميني سرحد 5.47 ڪلوميٽر (3.40 ميل) آهي ۽ دنيا جو ننڍو ساحل لڳ ڀڳ 3.83 ڪلوميٽر (2.38 ميل)؛ ان جي ويڪر آهي جيڪا 1,700 ميٽر ء 343 ميٽر (5,577 ۽ 1,144 فوٽ) جي وچ ۾ مختلف آهي رياست ۾ بلند ترين نقطو هڪ تنگ رستو آهي جنهن جو نالو خیمن دی ریوائرس (Chemin des Révoires) آهي جنهن جو نالو مونٽ اگیل (Mont Agel) جي سلپ تي آهي، Les Révoires وارڊ ۾، جيڪو سمنڊ جي سطح کان 161 ميٽر (528 فوٽ) مٿي آهي. پرنسپلٽي اٽلي جي سرحد کان اٽڪل 15 ڪلوميٽر (9.3 ميل) آهي. 2013 کان وٺي، اهو نو انتظامي وارڊن تي مشتمل آهي، جن مان سڀ کان وڏو آهي Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo/Spélugues، 0.44 اسڪوائر ڪلوميٽر (0.17 چورس ميل))، ۽ سڀ کان وڌيڪ آبادي وارو علائقو Larvotto (Larvotto/Bas Moulins، 5،4 رهواسي) آهي. جي 2008). جاري زمين جي بحاليءَ ذريعي، 1861ع ۾ شروع ٿيو ۽ 1960ع جي ڏهاڪي ۾ تيزيءَ سان، موناڪو جي ننڍي زميني ڪاميٽي ۾ 20 سيڪڙو واڌ ٿي.

Monaco,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Principality of Monaco,[lower-alpha 2] is a sovereign city-state and microstate on the French Riviera a few kilometres west of the Italian region of Liguria, in Western Europe, on the Mediterranean Sea. It is a semi-enclave bordered by France to the north, east and west. The principality is home to 38,682 residents,[11] of whom 9,486 are Monégasque nationals;[12] it is widely recognised as one of the wealthiest and most expensive places in the world.[13][14] The official language of the principality is French. In addition, Monégasque (a variety of Ligurian), English and Italian are spoken and understood by many residents.[lower-alpha 3]

With an area of 2.02 km2 (0.78 sq mi), it is the second-smallest sovereign state in the world, after Vatican City. Its 19٬009 inhabitants /km2 ([اوزا تبديل: اڻڄاتل يونٽ]) make it the most densely-populated sovereign state in the world. Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km (3.40 mi) and the world's shortest coastline of approximately 3.83 km (2.38 mi);[15] it has a width that varies between 1٬700 ۽ 349 m (5٬577 ۽ 1٬145 ft). The highest point in the state is a narrow pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires ward, which is 161 m (528 ft) above sea level. The principality is about 15 km (9.3 mi) from the border with Italy.[16] Since 2013, it consists of nine administrative wards, the largest of which is Monte Carlo (Monte Carlo/Spélugues, 0.44 km2 (0.17 sq mi)), and the most populous of which is Larvotto (Larvotto/Bas Moulins, 5,443 residents as of 2008). Through ongoing land reclamation, started in 1861 and accelerating in the 1960s, Monaco's small land mass has expanded by 20 per cent.

The principality is governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, with Prince Albert II as head of state, who wields immense political power despite his constitutional status. The prime minister, who is the head of government, can be either a Monégasque or a French citizen; the monarch consults with the Government of France before an appointment. Key members of the judiciary in Monaco are detached French magistrates.[17] The House of Grimaldi has ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, since 1297.[18] The state's sovereignty was officially recognised by the Franco-Monégasque Treaty of 1861, with Monaco becoming a full United Nations voting member in 1993. Despite Monaco's independence and separate foreign policy, its defence is the responsibility of France, besides maintenance of two small military units.

Monaco's economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the state's first casino, the Monte Carlo Casino, and a railway connection to Paris.[19] Since then, Monaco's mild climate, scenery, and gambling facilities have contributed to the principality's status as a tourist destination and recreation centre for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking centre and has sought to diversify its economy into the services sector and small, high-value-added, non-polluting industries. Monaco is famous as a tax haven, as the principality has no personal income tax (except for French citizens) and low business taxes. Over 30% of the residents are millionaires,[20] with real estate prices reaching €100,000 ($116,374) per square metre in 2018. Monaco is considered a global hub of money laundering, and in February 2023 was placed under review by the intergovernmental Financial Action Task Force watchdog, with the threat of being placed on its 'grey list', for its failures in financial supervision and reform to inhibit global criminality and terrorism financing.[21]

Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union (EU), but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs and border controls. Through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency; before, it used the Monegasque franc, which was pegged, and exchangeable with, the French franc until 1 January 2002. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and is a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF). It is also the host of the annual street circuit motor race, the Monaco Grand Prix, one of the original Grands Prix of Formula One. The local motorsports association gives name to the Monte Carlo Rally, hosted in January in the French Alps. The principality has a club football team, AS Monaco, which competes in the French Ligue 1 and have become French champions on multiple occasions, and a basketball team, which plays in the EuroLeague. A centre of research into marine conservation, Monaco is home to one of the world's first protected marine habitats,[22] an Oceanographic Museum, and the International Atomic Energy Agency Environment Labs, which is the only marine laboratory in the United Nations structure.[23]

  1. "Constitution de la Principauté". Council of Government. وقت 22 July 2011 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 22 May 2008.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  2. Constitution de la Principaute حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين (آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 27 September 2011) (French): Art. 9., Principaute De Monaco: Ministère d'Etat (archived from the original on 27 September 2011).
  3. "The Global Religious Landscape" (PDF). Pewforum.org. وقت 25 January 2017 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 2 October 2015.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  4. "Monaco en Chiffres" (PDF). وقت 15 November 2009 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 15 November 2009.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد), Principauté de Monaco. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  5. "Population on 1 January and is one of the smallest country. It is 2nd most smallest country.". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. وقت 5 February 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 4 February 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  6. "Recensement de la Population 2016" (PDF) (ٻولي ۾ French). Institut Monégasque de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (IMSEE). وقت 24 February 2020 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 10 February 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  7. 7.0 7.1 "EUROPE :: MONACO". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. وقت 30 December 2021 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 4 February 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  8. "GDP (current US$) - Monaco". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. وقت 14 March 2019 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 25 January 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  9. "GDP per capita (current US$) - Monaco". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. وقت 3 February 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 25 January 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  10. "What side of the road do people drive on?". Whatsideoftheroad.com. وقت 13 April 2012 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 28 May 2012.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  11. "Population, total". World Bank. وقت 20 February 2021 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 18 September 2019.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  12. "Demography / Population and employment / IMSEE - Monaco IMSEE". www.monacostatistics.mc. وقت 30 October 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 25 September 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  13. "The 1.25-mile waterfront stretch in Monaco that used to be the world's most expensive street looks no different from the rest of the city". Business Insider. وقت 12 January 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 July 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  14. "Monaco Is The Most Expensive Place To Buy Property In The World". وقت 29 May 2022 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 21 July 2022.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  15. "Monaco Statistics / IMSEE — Monaco IMSEE". Imsee.mc (ٻولي ۾ French). وقت 4 March 2016 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 3 August 2016.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  16. "Ventimiglia - Principato di Monaco". www.distanza.org. وقت 6 May 2019 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 8 April 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  17. "Communiqué de la Direction des Services Judiciaires" آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 17 February 2022 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين., Government of Monaco (in French), 26 June 2019.
  18. In fact Francesco Grimaldi, who captured the Rock on the night of 8 January 1297, was forced to flee Monaco only four years after the fabled raid, never to come back. The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until 1419 when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune. Source: Edwards, Anne (1992). The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Centuries of Scandal – The Years of Grace. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-688-08837-8. 
  19. "Monte Carlo: The Birth of a Legend". SBM Group. وقت 3 December 2013 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 23 August 2013.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  20. Beck, Katie. "The country running out of space for its millionaires". www.bbc.com. وقت 9 November 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 25 September 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  21. Théo Bourgery-Gonse, Monaco’s anti-money laundering system inadequate, risks name-and-shame, 23 January 2023 [1] آرڪائيو ڪيا ويا 1 May 2023 حوالو موجود آهي وي بيڪ مشين.
  22. "Monaco's Prince Albert II: Oceans are a 'family heritage,' with little time to save them". Los Angeles Times. وقت 25 September 2020 تي اصل کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 26 September 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)
  23. "Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC)" (PDF). United Nations. وقت 11 April 2021 تي اصل (PDF) کان آرڪائيو ٿيل. حاصل ڪيل 26 September 2020.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (مدد)


حوالي جي چڪ: "lower-alpha" نالي جي حوالن جي لاءِ ٽيگ <ref> آهن، پر لاڳاپيل ٽيگ <references group="lower-alpha"/> نہ مليو