مک مينيو کوليو
Europe 1815 monarchies versus republics.png Europe 1914 monarchies versus republics.png Europe 1930 monarchies versus republics.png Europe 1950 monarchies versus republics.png Europe 2015 monarchies versus republics.png

يورپي رياستون 1815 ۾ [1]

  بادشاھتون (55)
  ريپبلڪ رياستون (9)
يورپي رياستون 1914 ۾

[2]

   بادشاھتون (22)
   ريپبلڪ رياستون (4)
يورپي رياستون 1930 ۾

[3]

   بادشاھتون(20)
   ريپبلڪ رياستون (15)
يورپي رياستون 1950 ۾

[4]

  بادشاھتون (13)
  ريپبلڪ رياستون (21)
يورپي رياستون 2015 ۾

[5]

  بادشاھتون (12)
  ريپبلڪ رياستون (35)

ريپبلڪ(انگريزي: republic)لاطيني ٻولي: res publica ھڪ حڪومتي نظام آھي جنھن ۾ ملڪ حاڪمن جي بدران عوام جو ھوندو آھي ۽ ان ۾ اقتدار مورثي نہ ھوندو آھي. ھن نظام جي رياست ۾ رياستي سربراھ بادشاھ نہ ٿي سگھندو آھي.[6][7][8] آمريڪي انگريزي ۾ ريپلڪ جي تعريف اھڙي قسم جي حڪومت جيڪا عوام جي چونڊيل نمائندا ادارن ۾ نمائندگي ڪندا آهن.[7] اختيارن جو استعمال قانون جي حڪمراني ۾ آئين مطابق ڪندا آهن.[9][10][11][12]

حوالاسنواريو

  1. The Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire are counted amongst Europe. Counted as republics are the Swiss Confederation, the Free Cities of Hamburg, Bremen, Lübeck and Frankfurt, the Most Serene Republic of San Marino, the Republic of Cospaia, the Septinsular Republic and the German Confederation; however, member states of the German Confederation are also separately counted (35 monarchies).
  2. The Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire are counted amongst Europe.
  3. The Republic of Turkey is counted amongst Europe, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a single republic, the Irish Free State as an independent monarchy (see also Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949), Vatican City as an elective monarchy, the Kingdom of Hungary as a nominal monarchy.
  4. The Republic of Turkey is counted amongst Europe, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as a single republic, the Free Territory of Trieste as an independent republic, Vatican City as an elective monarchy, the Spanish State as a nominal monarchy.
  5. The Republic of Turkey is counted amongst Europe, the Russian Federation as a single republic, the Republic of Kosovo (recognised by most other European states) as an independent republic, Vatican City as an elective monarchy. The Republic of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Kazakhstan are not shown on this map and excluded from the count. The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognised only by Turkey) and all other unrecognised states are excluded from the count.
  6. Bohn, H. G. (1849) (en ۾). The Standard Library Cyclopedia of Political, Constitutional, Statistical and Forensic Knowledge. pp. 640. https://books.google.com/books?id=UTkBAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22res%20publica%22%20republic%20democracy%20monarch&pg=PA640#v=onepage&q=%22A%20republic,%20according%20to%20the%20modern%20usage%20of%20the%20word,%20signifies%20a%20political%20community%20which%20is%20not%20under%20monarchical%20government%22&f=false. "A republic, according to the modern usage of the word, signifies a political community which is not under monarchical government ... in which one person does not possess the entire sovereign power." 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Definition of Republic". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. حاصل ڪيل 2017-02-18. a government having a chief of state who is not a monarch ... a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law 
  8. "The definition of republic". Dictionary.com. حاصل ڪيل 2017-02-18. a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen directly or indirectly by them. ... a state in which the head of government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state. 
  9. Woodburn, James Albert. The American Republic and Its Government: An Analysis of the Government of the United States, G. P. Putnam, 1903:

    the constitutional republic with its limitations on popular government is clearly involved in the United States Constitution, as seen in the election of the President, the election of the Senate and the appointment of the Supreme Court.

    pp. 58–59.
  10. Scheb, John M. An Introduction to the American Legal System. Thomson Delmar Learning 2001. p. 6
  11. Allan, T. R. S. (2003-01-01) (en ۾). Constitutional Justice: A Liberal Theory of the Rule of Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199267880. https://books.google.com/books?id=CkkjwIKoooIC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA31#v=snippet&q=%22rule%20of%20law%20is%20interpreted%22&f=false. "When the idea of the rule of law is interpreted as a principle of constitutionalism, ..." 
  12. Peacock, Anthony Arthur (2010-01-01) (en ۾). Freedom and the Rule of Law. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780739136188. https://books.google.com/books?id=8h7Se7TUdJAC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA1#v=onepage&q=%22rule%20of%20law%20is%20fundamental%22&f=false. "The rule of law is fundamental to all liberal constitutional regimes..."