"ڪراچي" جي ورجائن ۾ تفاوت

٣٣٬٠٥٦ بائيٽون لاٿ ،  ٨ سال پهرين
removing English texts
(removing English texts)
ڪراچي شهر نه رڳو [[سنڌ]] جو ڪاروباري مرڪز آهي، پر خطي ۾ هڪ اهم بندر پڻ آهي. ڪراچي شهر [[وڏو سمنڊ|وڏي سمنڊ]] جي ساحل تي [[سنڌو ٽڪور]] جي اتر اولهه ۾ قائم آهي.
It accounts for the lion's share of Pakistan's [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] and generates 65 percent of the national revenue. It is the nucleus of regional business and technological activities and has one of the highest [[literacy rate]] in the country. It is also the home of distinguished academic and research institutions. With a population that is unofficially estimated at approximately 14 million, Karachi is the most populous city of the country and one of the largest cities in the world.
==ڀُون نِگاري==
The city occupies an area of over 3,527 [[چورس ڪلوميٽر|km²]].
Karachi is mostly made up of flat or rolling plains with hills on the western and northern boundaries of the [[urban sprawl]]. Two rivers pass through the city: the [[Malir River]] (north east to centre) and the [[Lyari River]] (north to south). Many other smaller rivers pass through the city as well with general drainage being from the western and northern areas towards the south. The [[Port of Karachi|Karachi Harbour]] is a protected bay to the south west of the city. The harbour is protected from storms by Keamari Island, [[Manora]] Island and Oyster Rocks, which together block the greater part of the harbour entrance in the west. The southern limit of the city is the [[Arabian Sea]] and forms a chain of warm water beaches that are rich in natural beauty.
''Main article [[ڪراچيءَ جِي آبهوا]]
[[Image:STS087-715-70.JPG|thumb|150px|left|{{مبسس4}}ناسا پاران مهيا ڪيل ڪراچيءَ جو اُپگرهِي عڪس]]
Karachi is located on the coast and as a result has a relatively mild [[آبهوا]]. The level of precipitation is low for most of the year.
However, due to the city's proximity to the sea, [[گھم]] levels usually remain high throughout the year. The city enjoys mild winters and hot summers. Karachi also receives the tail end of the [[monsoon]] rains. Since summer temperatures are quite high (the end of April through the end of August are approximately 35 to 40 degrees Celsius), the winter months (November through March) are the best time to visit Karachi. December, which is the most popular month for social events such as weddings, fundraisers and charity balls, is frequently the time when most visitors, tourists and expatriates come to Karachi.
===Origin of Karachi===
Any history of Karachi prior to the 19th century is brief. According to the legend, '''Krokola''' was settled when an old fisherwoman by the name of Mai Kolachi, settled near the delta of the [[Indus river]] to start a community. At Krokola, [[Alexander| Alexander the great]] camped and built a fleet for the voyage back to [[Babylonia]]. Alexander's admiral [[Nearchus]] sailed back to [[Mesopotamia]] from 'Morontobara' port which is probably the modern [[Manora]] Island at Karachi harbor. When [[Muhammad bin Qasim]] conquered modern [[Pakistan]] in the year [[712]], the city was called Debal (or Debul). It has been said that Debal was the ancestral village of present day Karachi. However, this has neither been proven or disproven.
It was in [[1772]] that the village '''Kolachi-jo-Goth''' was changed from a fishing village to a trading post when it was selected as a port for trade with [[Muscat]] and [[Bahrain]]. In the following years a fort was built and cannons brought in from Muscat were mounted on it. The fort had two doorways, one facing the sea called the '''Kharo Dar''' (in Sindhi), '''Khara Dar''' (in Urdu) or Brackish Gate and one facing the River Lyari called the '''Mitho Dar''' (in Sindhi), '''Meetha Dar''' (in Urdu) or Sweet Gate. Currently, the site of those gates corresponds to the location of the neighbourhoods of Kharodar and Mithodar. In 1795 the city passed from the Khan of [[Kalat]] to the rulers of [[Sindh]].
===برطانوي دور===
[[Image:Karachi Frere Hall.JPEG|thumb|left|190px|{{مبسس4}}[[فريئر هال]] - [[برطانوي راڄ]] دوران تعمير ڪيل هڪ خوبصورت عمارت]]
Karachi gained in position as port which led to its importance being recognised by the British, and consequently led to the conquering of the town on the 3rd of February [[1839]]. Three years later, it was annexed into [[British India]] as a district. The British recognized the importance of Karachi as a natural harbor and port for the produce of the [[Indus]] basin, and the city was rapidly developed into a bustling port city. A famous quote about Karachi attributed to [[Charles James Napier|Charles Napier]] is ''Would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!''. Napier's quote proved almost prophetic as it was under the [[British raj]] that Karachi would grow rapidly as its harbour was developed. When the [[Indian rebellion of 1857|First Indian War for Independence]] broke out in [[1857]], the 21st Native Infantry stationed in Karachi declared allegiance to the rebellion and joined the cause of the War on the 10th of September [[1857]]. The uprising though, was defeated by the British who were able to quickly reassert their control over Karachi.
By this time Karachi was a developed city with railroads, churches, Masjids, paved streets, courts and many commercial centres as well as a magnificent harbour built by the British. Many of the buildings were built in classical British colonial style, contrasting significantly with the "Mughal Gothic" of Lahore. Many of these old buildings exist today and provide interesting destinations for visitors.
[[Image:Mohatta_Palace_Karachi_2.jpg|thumb|200px|left|{{مبسس4}}موهاتا محل ]]
Karachi continued to grow in size as well as importance due to its position as a major port. A railroad connected Karachi to the rest of British India in the 1880s. Population grew from 73,500 ([[1881]]), to 105,199 ([[1891]]), to 115,407 ([[1901]]) (Britannica 1911 ed.).
In 1899 Karachi was said to be the largest wheat exporting port in the East (Feldman 1970:57). In [[1911]] when the capital was shifted to Delhi, Karachi became closer to being a Gateway to India. Karachi was declared the capital of the newly formed Sindh province in [[1936]], chosen over the traditional capital of [[Hyderabad, Pakistan|Hyderabad]].
===هڪ پاڪستاني شهر===
1947ع ۾ پاڪستان بيٺڪيت قائم ٿيڻ کان هڪدم پوءِ ڪراچيءَ کي پاڪستان جي گاديءَ واري هنڌ جو درجو ڏنو ويو ۽ [[سنڌ اسيمبلي]]ءَ کي ڪراچيءَ مان تڙي ڪڍيو ويو. ان سان گڏ ئي پاڪستان کان رڳو هڪ سال اڳ قائم ٿيل [[سنڌ يونيورسٽي]]ءَ کي پڻ ڪراچيءَ مان تڙي ڪڍيو ويو ۽ جي ڪيمپس تي [[ڪراچي يونيورسٽي]]ءَ جو بنياد وڌو ويو. اهي قدم کڻڻ سان گڏ پنجابي فوج ڪراچيءَ ۾ موجود سنڌي هندن جو قتل عام شروع ڪيو. اهڙيءَ ريت سمورن سنڌي هندن کي زوريءَ هندستان لڏايو ويو ۽ هندستاني پناهگيرن کي ڪراچيءَ سميت سنڌ جي سمورن وڏن شهرن ۾ رهايو ويو. هندن جون سموريون خالي ڪيل ملڪيتون هندستاني پناهگيرن حوالي ڪيون ويون. پاڪستان جي قيام وقت ڪراڇيءَ جي ماڻهسيه رڳو چار لک هئي. پر ڪراچيءَ اندر هندستاني پناهگيرن جي لوڌ اڄ سوڌو غير قانوني طور جاري ساري آهي ۽ ڪراچيءَ جي ماڻهسيه هڪ ڪروڙ کان به ٽپي وئي آهي.
[[Image:Karachi at night.JPEG|thumb|250px|left|{{مبسس4}}ڪراچي شهر رات جو ڏسجندي]]
In the [[1960]]s, Karachi was seen as an economic role model around the area and there was much praise for the way its [[economic system|economy]] was progressing. But in 1990s, Karachi was wracked with sectarian violence[[1992]].
In the last 20 years, Karachi has continued to grow, passing the 14 million mark (estimated by the European Space Agency). The current economic boom in Pakistan has created a sudden growth spurt in Karachi as jobs and infrastructure projects are increasing with time.
==Government and Administrative Division==
In order to decentralize the [[political]], [[administrative]] and [[financial]] resources and responsibilities, the government of [[Pakistan]] designed a new devolution plan in [[2000]]. The Local Government Plan 2000 and the Local Government Ordinance 2001 provided the legal roadmap to the aforesaid system that allow public participation in decision-making up to the grass-root level.
[[Image:Hasan_sq.jpg|thumb|250px|{{مبسس4}}حسن چوڪ تي واقع شهري مرڪز (سِوِڪ سينٽر - شهري حڪومت جا دفاتر)]]
According to this plan, Karachi has a three-tier federated system, formed by:
* [[Local government|City District Government]] (CDG)
* [[Town]] Municipal Administration
* [[Union Council]] Administration
The CDG of Karachi is divided into 18 zones or [[town|towns]]. These towns are governed by the town municipal administration. Each town administration is responsible for infrastructure and spatial planning, development facilitation, and municipal services (water, sanitation, solid waste, repairing roads, parks, street lights, and traffic engineering) in a town, except those functions which are retained within the CDG.
Eighteen towns of CDG Karachi are sub-divided into 178 stratum that form the union council administration. A union council (UC) is the core element of the [[local government]] system. Each UC is a body of 13 directly elected members, consisting of the UC [[Nazim]] ([[mayor]]), UC Naib Nazim ([[deputy mayor]]), labour and minority councillors. The UC Nazim heads the union administration and is responsible for facilitating the CDG to plan and execute municipal services, as well as for informing higher authorities about public concerns and complaints.
In the local body [[election|elections]] of [[2005]], Syed Mustafa Kamal was elected City Nazim of Karachi. He succeeds Naimatullah Khan. He took oath on [[October 17]], [[2005]] at Bagh-e-Jinnah, Karachi [http://www.jang-group.com/important_events/localbodies-polls2005/news/archive_eng/14-10-05.htm]. Mustafa Kamal was the provincial minister for [[information technology]] in [[Sindh]] before assuming office as the city's mayor. His predecessor, Naimatullah Khan was chosen as one of the best mayors of 2004-05 in [[Asia]] [http://www.worldmayor.com/voting05/comments_karachi.html].
===List of 18 Towns in CDG Karachi===
[[Image:KarachiFinancial.jpg|thumb|250px|{{مبسس4}}شاهراهه فيصل ڪراچي جو فضائي منظر]]
<table><tr><td valign=top>
* [[بلديه ٽائون]]
* [[بن قاسم ٽائون]]
* [[گڏاپ ٽائون]]
* [[Gulberg Town|Gulberg Town]]
* [[گلشن ٽائون]]
* [[جمشيد ٽائون]]
</td><td valign=top>
* [[ڪياماڙي ٽائون]]
* [[ڪورنگي ٽائون]]
* [[لانڍي ٽائون]]
* [[لياقت آباد ٽائون]]
* [[لياري ٽائون]]
* [[ملير ٽائون]]
</td><td valign=top>
* [[نئين ڪراچي ٽائون]]
* [[اتر ناظم آباد ٽائون]]
* [[اورنگي ٽائون]]
* [[صدر ٽائون]]
* [[شاهه فيصل ٽائون]]
* [[سائيٽ ٽائون]]
* [[دفاع گھرڪاري اختياري]]
===List of Mayors/Nazims===
The City of Karachi Municipal Act was promulgated in [[1933]]. Initially the Municipal Corporation was administrated by the mayor and deputy mayor as well as 57 councillors. In [[1976]], the Karachi Municipal Corporation was upgraded to a Metropolitan Corporation. Later in 2000-01, it was given the status of City District Government.
For a historical list of city mayors/nazims ''please see: [[Mayors of Karachi]]''
{| class="toccolours" align="right" cellpadding="4" cellspacing="0" style="margin:0 0 1em 1em; font-size: 95%;"
! colspan=2 bgcolor="#ccccff" align="center"| Historical populations
! align="center"| Census<br>year !! align="right"| Population
| colspan=2|<hr>
| align="center"| 1856 || align="right" | 56,875
| align="center"| 1872 || align="right" | 56,753
| align="center"| 1881 || align="right" | 73,560
| align="center"| 1891 || align="right" | 105,199
| align="center"| 1901 || align="right" | 136,297
| align="center"| 1911 || align="right" | 186,771
| align="center"| 1921 || align="right" | 244,162
| align="center"| 1931 || align="right" | 300,799
| align="center"| 1941 || align="right" | 435,887
| align="center"| 1951 || align="right" | 1,068,459
| align="center"| 1961 || align="right" | 1,912,598
| align="center"| 1972 || align="right" | 3,426,310
| align="center"| 1981 || align="right" | 5,208,132
| align="center"| 1998 || align="right" | 9,269,265
| align="center"| 2005 || align="right" | (estimated) 14 mn.
[[Image:Khi_population.GIF|thumb|250px|left|Trend of Population Growth in Karachi]]
The population and demographic distribution of Karachi during last 150 years have greatly changed.
Non governmental and international sources report that Karachi's current population is estimated to be 14 to 15 million — a thirty-seven-fold increase over its population in [[1947]] (400,000). The city's population is currently growing at about 5% per year (mainly on account of rural-urban internal [[Human migration|migration]]). Currently, Karachi is counted as one of the largest [[Megalopolis|megacities]] of the world.
The dominant ethnic group in Karachi are the [[Muhajir_Urdu|Muhajirs]] who are the Muslims who immigrated to Pakistan from the Central Parts of India after [[Partition_of_India|Partition]], after these are the [[Punjabis]]. There were more than one million [[Afghan]] refugees who settled in Karachi after the [[Soviet invasion of Afghanistan]] in 1979. The Afghan refugees include several ethnic groups: [[Pakhtun]]s, [[Tajik]]s, [[Hazara]]s, [[Uzbek]]s, [[Turkmen]], etc, the growth of that refugee population and additional immigration now numbers Afghans at about 3 million. There are also hundred of thousands of [[Bengali]]s, [[Arab]]s, [[Iran]]ians, [[Arakan]]i Muslim refugees (from the [[Rakhine State]] in [[Myanmar]]) and [[Africans]] immigrants are also settled in Karachi. There are also [[Goa]]n Catholic Christians who settled in Karachi during the British era. The poor immigrants form a significant part of the slum areas population in Karachi.
The breakup of Karachi's population is as follows: Males form 53.7% of Karachiites. 37.6% of which are under the age of 15. 4.4% are older than 50. 22.1% of the city's population are migrants from other places.
According to [[1998]] census the linguistic distribution of population, is as follows. [[Urdu speaking]] 48.52%; [[Punjabi]] 13.94%; [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]] 7.22%; [[Pushto]] 11.42%; [[Balochi language|Balochi]] 4.34%; [[Seraikis|Seraiki]] 2.11%;
Others 12.4%. The others include [[Gujarati language|Gujarati]], [[Memon]], [[Brahui language|Brahui]], Makrani, Khowar, Burushaski, [[Arabic]], [[Persians|Persian]] and [[Bengali]].
According to the census the religious breakup of the city is as follows. [[Muslim]] 96.49%; [[Christianity|Christian]] 2.35%; [[Hinduism|Hindu]] 0.83%; [[Ahmadiyya|Ahmadi]] 0.17%; Others 0.13%. The others include [[Zoroastrianism|Parsi]], [[Zikri]], Jews and [[Buddhism|Buddhist]].
{{main|ڪراچيءَ جي معيشت}}
Karachi is the financial capital of Pakistan. It accounts for the lion's share of Pakistan's [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] and generates about 70% percent of the national revenue. Most of Pakistan's public and private banks have their head offices in Karachi. Nearly all of these are located on I.I Chundrigar Road which is fast becoming home to the high rise headquarters of major corporations. The most notable of these are the Habib Bank Plaza which was the tallest building in Pakistan before it was surpassed by Muslim Commercial Bank's MCB Tower.
Karachi Port Trust (http://www.kpt.gov.pk) is building a 500 ft high Port Tower with commercial cum recreational center. Integrating into Karachi’s skyline, the main feature of the venture shall be a revolving restaurant, a viewing gallery offering a panoramic view of the coastline and the city. The Tower is planned to be located at the Clifton shoreline.
KPT has also launched a housing scheme for the welfare of KPT and Dock labour Board’s workers. The Port Town will be spread over 500 acres, at KPT land in Hawks Bay and shall consist of 13,000 independent units.
Besides banking and finance, Karachi also hosts the offices of foreign [[multinational corporation]]s as well as corporations based in Pakistan. It is home to the largest stock exchange of Pakistan: the Karachi Stock Exchange.[http://www.kse.com.pk/]. This financial boom helped Pakistan to achieve its ambitious goal of exceeding an seven per cent growth in GDP for the fiscal year 2004-05.
The recent trend of ICT ([[Information technology|information and communications technology]]), [[electronic media]] and [[call centers]] has become a significant part of Karachi business hierarchy. Call centres for foreign companies have been targeted as a significant area of growth, with the government making efforts to reduce taxes by as much as 80 per cent in order to gain foreign investments in the IT sector.
Most of Pakistans' Independent Media Television channels are headquartered in Karachi. KTN, Kashish, Sindh TV, Geo television (www.geo.tv), Ary Digital (www.ary.tv) and Aaj television (www.aaj.tv) are the most popular ones. They generate huge business revenues for the city in advertising and provide jobs and entertainment. These channels are on satellite and can be seen all over the world.
Karachi also has a huge industrial base. There are large industrial estates on most of the fringes of the main city. The main industries are textiles, pharmaceuticals, steel, and automobiles. Apart from these, there are many [[cottage industries]] in the city as well. Karachi is also known as software outsourcing hub of Pakistan. It also has a rapidly flourishing Free Zone with an annual growth rate of nearly 6.5 per cent. An [[expo center]] has also been set up in Karachi and is now available to host many regional and International exhibitions.
Karachi is also home of major automobile manufacturing companies.
Toyota is in the process of increasing production capacity to over 120,000 units/ annum. Suzuki Motor Company is also located in Karachi. The manufacturing plant located in Bin Qasim has a production capacity of 50,000 vehicles per year. Among others Millat Tractors, HinoPak Buses and Trucks manufacturing plants are also located in Karachi.
Currently, the Karachi [[Port]] is the only large port in Pakistan, and is central to all shipping in Pakistan. The airport of Karachi, [[Quaid-e-Azam International Airport]] is also the largest airport in Pakistan.
Karachi is the nerve centre of Pakistan's economy. The economic stagnation due to political anarchy, ethnic strife and resultant military operations during the late 1980s and 1990s led to drops in industrial growth in the city.
==آرٽ ۽ ادب==
[[Image:Hindu Gymkhana Karachi.jpeg|thumb|225px|left|{{مبسس4}}هندُو جمخانو - ناپا]]
Karachi is home to some of Pakistan's important cultural institutions. The National Academy of Performing Arts [http://www.napa.org.pk NAPA], located in the newly renovated Hindu Gymkhana has regular musical performances promoting the classical music of Pakistan including an annual musical conferance. The National Arts Council (''Koocha-e-Saqafat'') also has musical performances and [[Mushaira]] (poetry recitations). Karachi has several excellent museums including the Mohatta Palace museum which regularly has exhibitions as well as the National Museum of Pakistan. The [[Kara Film Festival]] organised annually showcases independent Pakistani and international films and documentaries.
[[Image:Creek Marina Club Karachi.jpeg|thumb|225px|left|{{مبسس4}}ڪراچي ڪريڪ مرينه ڪلب]]
The everyday lifestyle of Karachi differs substantially from that of other Pakistani towns. The [[culture]] of Karachi is characterized by the blending of [[Middle East]]ern, [[South Asia]]n and [[Western]] influences, as well as the status of the city as a major international business center. As a whole, there is considerable diversity in culture, and this diversity has produced unique cultural amalgam of its own type.
Karachiites are urbane in humour, pragmatic in approach and rational in practice. [[Professionalism]] is appreciated over emotional and conservative attitude. Most of the dwellers live in medium sized houses and flats rather large open space houses of other cities in Pakistan. Karachi also hosts the largest [[middle class]] stratum of the country. Skewed difference of living standard and showy feudal living style do not exist in Karachi. Nearly all parties, functions and celebrations are scheduled at night time.
''See also [[Chand Raat of Karachi]] - [[New Year's Eve in Karachi]]''
==تعليمي ادارا==
{{تفصيل|ڪراچيءَ جي تعليمي ادارن جي لسٽ}}
Karachi has the highest literacy rate, and the highest number of universities and colleges, of any of Pakistan's other cities. The city is well-known for its young student population, who flock from all parts of Pakistan. Most universities of Karachi are considered to be the premier educational institutions of Pakistan, and hence the admissions process is intensely competitive with only the brightest and talented making their way into [[NED University]], [[Aga Khan University]], [[University of Karachi]], [[Institute of Business Administration (IBA)]], FAST - [[National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences]], [[Indus Valley Institute of Art and Architecture]], [[Bahria University]], [[Textile Institute of Pakistan]], [[Mohammad Ali Jinnah University]], [[Dow University of Health Sciences]], [[Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology]], Shaheed Zulifiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology [[(SZABIST)]], Hamdard University, H.E.J Research Institute of Chemistry, [[Applied Economics Research Centre]] (AERC), Institute of Business and Management (IBM), [[Jinnah]] University for Women and [[Dawood College of Engineering and Technology]].
''See also the [[list of universities in Karachi]] and [[list of educational institutions in Karachi]].''
* [http://www.pakuniversities.net/ Search educational institutions in Pakistan] PakUniversities.net is the biggest independant website for people who wish to continue, higher studies from most suitable Institution and also for those who want to know about particular Institution Degree programs offered in Pakistan.
[[National Stadium, Karachi]] is the pride of Pakistani cricket fans as the Pakistani team has a remarkable record in this arena. Karachi is also served by UBL Sports complex, KPT Sports complex, A O Cricket stadium and DHA Cricket stadium.
Karachi has the also infamous '''Devil's Point''' and '''Track''' in Phase VIII, D.H.A, a mile stretch of straight unbroken road, the place where street racing is a common occurrence after midnight. Due to the recent decrease in taxes by the Federal Government, on car imports, the array of sports cars in Karachi has increased, fueling the racing scene.
==<font face="MBSarang Sattar">دلچسپ مقامات==
[[Image:Karachi_St._Patricks_Cathedral.jpg|thumb|250px|{{مبسس4}}سنت پيٽرڪ ڪيٿيڊرل]]
[[Image:Khi_seas_1.jpg|thumb|250px|{{مبسس4}}ڪلفٽن سامونڊي ڪناري جي سامهون منظر]]
**[[Mazar-e-Quaid]] (Mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan- [[Muhammad Ali Jinnah]])
**Koocha-e-Saqafat (National Arts Council)
**Mohatta Palace Museum
**[[Masjid e Tooba]] (A large domed mosque)
**[[Ibrahim_Ismail_Chundrigar|I.I. Chundrigar]] Road (Karachi's "Wall street")
**Aga Khan Hospital (for its modernist Islamic architecture)
**Teen Talwar (Three Swords) Monument
* '''Beaches and Waterfront'''
**[[Clifton Sea View]] seafront
**[[Hawkesbay Beach]] (breeding ground for endangered turtles)
**Paradise Point (a rock promontory in the sea with a natural arch)
**[[Sandspit Beach]]
**French Beach
**Russian Beach
**Fishing and Crabbing on Keamari and Manora
**Creek Club Karachi (offers boating in the creek areas)
**Clifton Pavilion and the [[Jehangir Kothari Parade]]
**Clifton Beach Park
**Port Fountain Jet (600ft high pressure water fountain)
**Defence Golf Club
**Park Towers Shopping Mall
**Zamzama Commercial Area (famous for its designer outlets and cafes)
**World Wildlife Centre
**Abdullah Shah Ghazi Mazar (mausoleum of Karachi's [[sufi]] saint)
**Ibn-e-Qasim Park
* '''Museums'''
**[[Mazar-e-Quaid]] Museum
**Mohatta Palace Museum
**Pakistan Air Force Museum
**Pakistan Maritime Museum
**National Museum of Pakistan
**Karachi Expo Centre
* '''Colonial Buildings'''
**Mereweather Tower
**[[Frere Hall]]
**Governor's House
**St. Patrick's Cathedral
**St. Joseph's Convent
**St. Anthony's Church
**Trinity Church
**Sindh High Court
**Former Victoria Museum (later used by the Supreme Court)
**[[Sindh Club]]
**Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Building
**Hindu Gymkhana (now [[National Academy of Performing Arts]] [http://www.napa.org.pk/ NAPA])
**Empress Market
**D.J. College
* '''Islands'''
**Clifton Oyster Rocks
**Manora Island
**Bundle Island
**Bhit Shah
**Shah Bandar
**Churna Island (Naval gunnery site, as well as Pakistan's only coral reefs)
* '''Amusement Parks'''
**PIA Planetariam
**Aladin Park
**Hill Park
**Safari Park
**Karachi Zoo (AKA Gandhi garden)
**Taleemi Baagh
**Cosy Water Park
**Samzu Park
**Fun Land
**Play Land
**Fiesta park
**Dream World Resort
**Dolphin Park
**Askari Park
* '''Food'''
**Burnes Road
**[[Hyderabad Colony]]
The [[Clifton beach]] in Karachi is the largest beachin Pakistan. Although it suffered a recent oil spill disaster, the beach has been cleaned and has floodlights installed for night-time visitors. The government has embarked on the beautification of Karachi's coastline by building a '''Beach park''' in Clifton which will eventually be connected to the Jehangir Kothari parade and Bagh Ibn- Qasim. There are also a lot of other excellent beaches near the city such as ''Sandspit'', ''Hawke's Bay'', the ''French Beach'', ''Russian beach'' and ''Paradise Point'' (a sandstone rock promotory with a natural arch) that are frequented by flocks of visitors every day.
[[Image:Karachi - Pakistan-market.jpg|thumb|250px|<font face="MBSarang Sattar" size="3">ڪراچيءَ جي رستن تي لڳل ڪپڙي جي آچر بازار]]
Karachi is dotted with many shopping areas, large and small, all across the city. Karachiites are avid shoppers, as can be seen from the crowds of people these markets attract every evening. Tariq Road, Zamzama and Elphinstone Street are the most famous shopping areas in the city. One can find all sorts of clothing, garments, and beautiful fabrics
in Karachi's [[bazaar]]s, as well as a number of other items. The Saddar area in downtown Karachi is also home to countless large and small markets dealing from everyday household items to clothing and fabrics to electronics. The Empress Market is a large Victorian-era market, which is home to wholesellers of spices and other items. Some other notable shopping areas include: Paposh Market and Hyrdi.
Karachi also has a number of large modern shopping malls, among which the '''Park Towers''', '''The Forum''', '''Millennium Mall''' and '''Dolmen Mall''' are notable. More of these malls are currently being built, including the '''Atrium Mall''', '''Jumeira Mall''' and the '''Dolmen City Mall'''.
[[Image:Karachi_Jinnah_Airport.jpg|thumb|250px|left|<font face="MBSarang Sattar" size="3">جيڻا ٽرمينل [[قائد اعظم بين الاقوامي ھوائي اڏو]]، ڪراچي]]
The city has a modern international airport called the [[Quaid-e-Azam International Airport]], Pakistan's busiest. The city's old airport terminals are now used for [[Hajj]] flights, cargo facilities, and ceremonial visits from heads of state. U.S. Coalition forces used the old terminals for their logistic supply operations as well. Apart from this, the city also has two other airstrips used primarily by the armed forces.
Karachi has the largest shipping ports in Pakistan at [[Port of Karachi|Karachi Port]] and [[Port Qasim]]. These sea-ports have modern facilities and not only handle trade for Pakistan, but also serve as ports for Afghanistan and the land-locked Central Asian countries. Plans have been announced for new passenger facilities at Karachi Port.
Karachi is linked via railway to the rest of the country by the [[Pakistan Railways]]. The Karachi City Station and Karachi Cantt Station are the city's two major railway stations. The railway system handles a large amount of freight to and from the Karachi port apart from providing passenger services to people travelling up country. Karachi also has a circular railway system that is planned to be extended to play a part in the city's mass transit.
Currently, commuter traffic is handled primarily by motorists and minibuses, but there are plans to construct a light-rail based mass transit system in the city to decongest the roads and provide quick service to commuters.
Currently, being one of the most rapidly growing cities in the world, Karachi faces problems that are central to many developing metropolises including overpopulation, overcrowding, traffic, terrorism and crime.
Karachi faces a very severe problem of excessive traffic. According to official statistics, on an average annually 550 people are killed in road traffic accidents. The number of cars far outstrips the roads that they need to ply on. This makes driving considerably dangerous and causes loss of time due to traffic congestion.
==Land Ownership==
Karachi is located in semi-arid coastal desert area with very limited agriculture land along the two small seasonal rivers, [[Lyari River]] and [[Malir River]], that pass through the city. Before independence, the area around Karachi had sparse nomadic population and most of the land was state owned. At the time of independence, Karachi was chosen as the first capital of Pakistan and the land area came under tight state control. According to the data prepared by the Master Plan and Environmental Control Unit of the [[Karachi Development Authority]] (KDA) in [[1988]], nearly 400,000 acres of the 425,529 acres that make up Karachi's metropolitan area is in some form of public ownership. [[Government of Sindh]] owns 137,687 acres, KDA 124,676 acres, [[Karachi Port Trust]] (KPT) 25,259 acres, [[Karachi Metropolitan Corporation]] (KMC) 24,189 acres, [[Army Cantonment Board]] 18,596 acres, [[Pakistan Steel Mills]] 19,461 acres, [[Defense Housing Society]] 16,567 acres, [[Port Qasim]] 12,961 acres, [[Government of Pakistan]] 4,051 acres and [[Pakistan Railways]] 3,119 acres. In late 1990s the undeveloped land belonging to KDA was transfered to the [[Malir Development Authority]] (MDA) and [[Lyari Development Authority]] (LDA).
==پڻ ڏسندا==
* [[Pakistan]]
* [[Sindh]]
* [[Islamabad]]
* [[Lahore]]
* [[Peshawar]]
* [[Quetta]]
==خارجي ڳنڍڻا==
* [http://www.karachicity.gov.pk/ Official site: City District Government of Karachi]
* [http://www.kse.com.pk/ Karachi Stock Exchange]
* [http://www.karachiairport.com.pk Quaid-e-Azam International Airport], Jinnah International
* [http://www.karachiairport.com/ Old Karachi Airport]
* [http://www.kpt.gov.pk/ Karachi Port Trust]
* [http://www.urckarachi.org/home.htm Urban Resource Centre - Karachi]
* [http://mapy.mk.cvut.cz/data/Centr._Asia/Topo%20maps_500k/G-42-V.jpg Link to Soviet topographic map 1:500 000]
* [http://www.historickarachi.com/ Historic Karachi] - The history of Karachi through photographs
* [http://www.flickr.com/photos/79596289@N00/ Photo collection of Karachi] by Ali Adnan Qazalbash
;Popular Topics
* [http://www.karafilmfest.com/ The Official KaraFilm Festival website]
* [http://3quarksdaily.blogs.com/3quarksdaily/2005/06/critical_digres.html Contemporary Karachi and the Karachi of popular discourse]
* [http://3quarksdaily.come 3 Quarks Daily] Short essay by Husain Naqvi
* [http://www.karachiplus.com/ Website highlighting places of interest in Karachi]
;Non Government Organisations
* [http://www.urckarachi.org/home.htm Urban Resource Center]
* [http://www.ansarburney.org/ Ansar Burney Trust] Human Rights Organisation
[[Category:Coastal cities and towns in Pakistan]]
[[Category:Cities and towns in Sindh]]