"مائڪرو بائيولاجي" جي ورجائن ۾ تفاوت

سنوار جو تَتُ ڪونھي
(نئون صفحو: thumb|right|An [[agar plate streaked with microorganisms]] '''مائڪرو بائيولاجي'''{{ٻيا نالا|انگريزي='''...)
ٽيگَ: موبائل سنوار موبائل ويب سنوار
 
ٽيگَ: موبائل سنوار موبائل ويب سنوار
[[File:Agar plate with colonies.jpg|thumb|right|An [[agarاگر plateپليٽ]] streaked withيا [[microorganismپيٽري ڊش]]s تي رکيل جيوڙن سان ڀريل پاڻياٺ واريون سڪل لڪيرون]]
 
 
'''مائڪرو بائيولاجي'''{{ٻيا نالا|انگريزي='''Microbiology'''}}جيوڙن يا تمام ننڍن جاندارن جو علم . لفظ مائڪرو [[يوناني ٻولي|يوناني]]جي لفظ مائڪروس{{lang|grc|μῑκρος}} مان نڪتل آهي جنھن جي معني ننڍڙو آھي. بايو لفظ بہ يوناني لفظ بايوس{{lang|grc|-λογία}}مان نڪتل آهي جنھن جي معني آھي زندگي.لفظ لاجي بہ يوناني لفظ لاگيا{{lang|grc|-λογία}} مان نڪتل آهي جنھن جي معني آهي اڀياس يا مطالعو. اھڙي طرح مائڪروبائيولاجي جي معنيَ آھي ننڍڙن جاندارن يا ھڪ جيو گھرڙي وارن جاندارن يا گھڻن گھرڙن وارن جاندارن يا بغير گھرڙن وارن جاندارن يا خوردبيني تي نظر ايندڙ جاندارن جو اڀياس.<ref name=Brock>{{cite book | author = Madigan M, Martinko J (editors) | title = Brock Biology of Microorganisms edition = 13th | publisher = Pearson Education | year = 2006 | isbn = 0-321-73551-X |page = 1096}}</ref> مائڪروبائيولاجي جي ذيلي شاخن ۾ ڪيترائي ٻيا علم اچن ٿا جن ۾ [[وائرولاجي]]، [[پيراسائيٽولاجي]]، [[مائڪولاجي]] ۽ [[بيڪٽيريالاجي]] شامل آهن. يوڪيريئوٽڪ مائڪرو جاندارن جي جسم جا حصا جھليدار جيو گھرڙن جا ٺھيل ھوندا آھن. انھن ۾ فنگاء ۽ پروٽسٽس شامل آهن. جڏهن ته پروڪاريوٽڪ جاندارن جي جسم جي حصن ۾ جھليدار جيو گھرڙا ڪانہ ٿين. .<ref name="Amann1995">{{cite journal |vauthors=Nitesh RA, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH | year = 2011 | title = Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation | journal = Microbiological Reviews | volume = 59 | pages = 143–169 | pmid = 7535888 | issue = 1 | pmc = 239358}}</ref> وائرس جو شمار ڦيرڦار سان جاندارن جي درجي ۾ ٿيندو آهي .<ref>{{cite web | author = Rice G | title = Are Viruses Alive? | url = http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/yellowstone/viruslive.html | date = 2007-03-27 |accessdate = 2007-07-23}}</ref>
 
whereas [[prokaryote|prokaryotic]] organisms—all of which are microorganisms—are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include [[eubacteria]] and [[archaebacteria]]. Microbiologists traditionally relied on culture, staining, and microscopy. However, less than 1% of the microorganisms present in common environments can be cultured in isolation using current means.<ref name="Amann1995">{{cite journal |vauthors=Nitesh RA, Ludwig W, Schleifer KH | year = 2011 | title = Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation | journal = Microbiological Reviews | volume = 59 | pages = 143–169 | pmid = 7535888 | issue = 1 | pmc = 239358}}</ref> Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, for example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification.
 
[[Virus]]es have been variably classified as organisms,<ref>{{cite web | author = Rice G | title = Are Viruses Alive? | url = http://serc.carleton.edu/microbelife/yellowstone/viruslive.html | date = 2007-03-27 |accessdate = 2007-07-23}}</ref> as they have been considered either as very simple microorganisms or very complex molecules. [[Prions]], never considered as microorganisms, have been investigated by virologists, however, as the clinical effects traced to them were originally presumed due to chronic viral infections, and virologists took search—discovering "infectious proteins".
 
The existence of microorganisms was predicted many centuries before they were first observed, for example by the Jains in India and by [[Marcus Terentius Varro]] in ancient Rome. The first recorded microscope observation was of the fruiting bodies of moulds, by [[Robert Hooke]] in 1666, but the Jesuit priest [[Athanasius Kircher]] was likely the first to see microbes, which he mentioned observing in milk and putrid material in 1658. [[Antonie van Leeuwenhoek]] is considered a [[List of people considered father or mother of a scientific field|father of microbiology]] as he observed and experimented with [[microscopic organisms]] in 1676, using simple [[microscope]]s of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of [[Louis Pasteur]] and in medical microbiology [[Robert Koch]].